Kuzabona undi Mandela bizafata igihe: Ikiganiro kirambuye na Depite Rucibigango

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Rene Anthere Rwanyange

Kuya 10 Ukuboza 2013 saa 11:49
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Umukambwe Nelson Mandela Madiba yabaye intangarugero mu guharanira kwigira, ku banyafurika y’Epfo ndetse no ku Isi yose. Yaharaniye ko Abirabura bagira uburenganzira kuva ari umusore, bigeza igihe anafungwa imyaka igera kuri 27, ariko umugambi we ntiyawutezukaho. Afunguwe abaturage yaharaniye bamutoreye kuba Perezida wa Afurika y’Epfo, kuva mu 1994-1999, manda ye irangiye ntiyagize umutima wo kuguma ku buyobozi n’ubwo abaturage b’icyo gihugu baba Abirabura, n’Abazungu bamushakaga. Nyuma yo (...)

Umukambwe Nelson Mandela Madiba yabaye intangarugero mu guharanira kwigira, ku banyafurika y’Epfo ndetse no ku Isi yose. Yaharaniye ko Abirabura bagira uburenganzira kuva ari umusore, bigeza igihe anafungwa imyaka igera kuri 27, ariko umugambi we ntiyawutezukaho. Afunguwe abaturage yaharaniye bamutoreye kuba Perezida wa Afurika y’Epfo, kuva mu 1994-1999, manda ye irangiye ntiyagize umutima wo kuguma ku buyobozi n’ubwo abaturage b’icyo gihugu baba Abirabura, n’Abazungu bamushakaga. Nyuma yo gusezera ku buyobozi guhera mu mwaka wa 2004, yatangiye guhangana n’uburwayi dore ko yafashwe n’igituntu ubwo yari akiri muri gereza. Yatabarutse ku wa 5 Ukuboza 2013 saa yine n’iminota 50 z’ijoro.

Nyuma y’itabaruka rye hagaragajwe akababaro kenshi Isi yose yagize, Abakuru b’ibihugu batandukanye batanze ubutumwa bw’akababaro ku bayanyafurika y’Epfo ndetse no ku Isi yose. Mandela abakurikiye amateka ye bamwigiyeho byinshi, kuko yabaye umwarimu ku bamuri hafi n’abamukurikiranye.

Depite Rucibigango Jean Baptiste wavukiye i Kibeho mu karere ka Nyaruguru ku wa 25 Mata 1953, ukomoka mu muryango w’abahinzi-borozi, amashuri abanza ndetse n’ayisumbuye yayigiye mu Burundi aho yari mu buhungiro. Kaminuza yayize muri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo. Afite impamyabushobozi ihanitse mu ndimi nyafurika. Yabaye Umwanditsi Mukuru wa La Nouvelle Releve, ubu ni Perezida w’ishyaka rya gisosiyalisiti ry’abakozi (PSR) akaba na Depite mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko. Yanditse ibitabo byinshi birimo Racine pour Vivre, Bras de Fer Franco-rwandais, akora n’ubushakashatsi ku itangazamakuru nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994 (Etudes sur l’etat des Medias rwandais après 1994).

Nk’umwe mu bafata Nelson Mandela nk’umwarimu we w’agahebuzo, mu kiganiro yagiranye n’Umunyamakuru wa IGIHE yadutangarije ko Isi ikomeje gutakaza intwari, ariko kuzabona ushobora gutera ikirenge mu cya Nelson Mandela nonaha bitoroshye. Afite icyizere ko hari igikorwa mu kwigisha urubyiruko, kuko gahunda ya Ndi Umunyarwanda itera ikirenge mu cya Mandela.

Depite Jean Baptiste Rucibigango

Ikiganiro kirambuye

IGIHE: Nelson Mandela ko uri muto wamumenye ute?

Hon. Rucibigango Jean Baptiste: Mandela namumenye mu buto bwanjye, ndi mu kigero cy’imyaka nka 17 cyangwa 18, ntangiye gusoma mu ndimi z’amahanga cyane cyane igifaransa. Uko namubonaga mu mafoto yari umusaza muremure, ufite umugongo ugondamye, ariko akagira ijwi ryiza ribereye kumvwa.

IGIHE: Ni ibihe bikorwa bikomeye umuziho?

Hon. Rucibigango: Yagize urugamba rwo kwibohoza ruhuje abantu bose bo muri Afurika y’Epfo, Afurika n’Isi yose. Atabarutse ari umuntu ukunzwe cyane. Ibitekerezo bye yabikuye ku bandi bantu, nk’uko n’abandi babigenza iyo batangiye urugamba rwo kwibohoza. Hari uwitwa Pixley Ka Isaka, ni we wa mbere watanze igitekerezo ko abantu bagomba gufatanya, baba amoko anyuranye, amadini, ibitekerezo binyuranye bagomba gufatanya kugira ngo bibohoze. Ishyaka ryaje kubohoza Afurika y’Epo ryatangiye kera cyane.

IGIHE: Hari icyo waba uzi ku ishyaka ANC?

Hon. Rucibigango: ANC yashinzwe ku itariki 8 Mutarama 1912. Ni cyera cyane, ubu hashize ikinyejana kimwe. Ibintu byagiye bidindira kubera ko uko bari batangije kurwanya irondakoko, wasangaga aria bantu bishyirahamwe bashingiye ku moko, ku madini, no ku byiciro by’ubukire. Pixley Ka Isaka washinze ANC yagerageje kubirwanya kuko yasangaga intambara yabo ntacyo yabageza. Wasangaga Abazulu aribo bifatanya kurwanya akarengane, biradindira. Ariko no mu bwoko bwa Mandela aribwo Xhosa abayobozi babwo na bo bashatse kwishyirahamwe ngo batangire intambara ariko ntibyabashobokera. Pixley ni bwo yahisemo kurwanya akarengane adashingiye ku bwoko.

Nyuma rero habayeho kumenya uko ako karengane karwanywa kandi bigerweho. Mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya 19 Abirabura bari baragizwe nk’abacakara mu gihugu cyabo, bamburwa ubutaka ndetse babuzwa n’uburenganzira bwabo. Byari bikeneye urugamba kugira ngo ibyo bishireho, gusa hasigaye kumenya uburyo bwakoreshwa.

IGIHE: Ni iki cyatumye umukunda?

Hon. Rucibigango: Ibyo nasomye mu bitabo byatumye mukunda cyane. Mandela yavutse ku itariki ya 17 Nyakanga 1918, mu mudugudu wa Mvezo, mu gace ka Transkei, mu karere ka Bantoustan mu ntara ya Cape y’Iburasirazuba. Akomoka mu muryango w’aba Thembu, se umubyara akaba yari umuyobozi mukuru wabo, ariko aza kuvanwaho n’abakoloni ariko yaje gutabaruka umuhungu we akiri muto. Mandela afite imyaka icyenda yatangiye kurererwa i bwamimu muryango w’umwami Jongintaba Dalindyebo, abatirizwa mu idini ry’Abametodisite. Nk’umwe mu bana b’umwami yarezwe neza bituma ashobora kwiga muri imwe muri kaminuza zikomeye ya Fort Hare, ari na ho yatangiriye urugamba rwo kubohoza Afurika y’Epfo. Abanzi be bamwitaga intama yirabura, ariko ibyo ntacyo byari bivuze kuri we.

IGIHE: Ni ikihe gikorwa cye cyagushimishije kurusha ibindi?

Hon. Rucibigango: Mandela yanyuze mu nzira zikomeye z’ubuzima aharanira kubohora Abirabura bo muri Afurika y’Epfo. Nk’umuntu wari warabaye umuyobozi w’umutwe w’urubyiruko wari ushamikiye kuri ANC wahimbwe na Walter Sisulu, akaza no gufungwa igihe kirekire, ibyo ntiyabihaye agaciro kuko amaze gutorerwa kuba Perezida wa Afurika y’Epfo mu 1994, yakoze manda imwe kandi ategura neza uwamusimbuye.

Hari ijambo rye nakunze cyane ubwo yari mu rukiko i Rivonia, ryatumye aba icyamamare. Yagize ati «Namaganye byimazeyo irondakoko. Niyemeje kurirwanya igihe cyose mu buzima bwanjye, kugeza nshizemo umwuka. Narwaniye ihame rya demokarasi n’uburinganire bwa muntu imbere y’amategeko, aho abantu bisanzura kandi bafite amahirwe angana. Iryo hame ni yo mpamvu yanjye yanjye yo kubaho, kandi nizeye ko nzarigeraho, bibaye ngombwa niteguye kubitangira ubuzima bwanjye.»

IGIHE: Igihe wumvaga ko atangiye kurwara bikomeye wabibonaga ute?

Hon. Rucibigango: Ubuzima bufite iherezo. Kurwara ndetse no kwitaba Imana ni ibintu bitantungura cyane. Nkurikije ubuzima Mandela yabayemo n’imvune yagize ari muri Gereza sinari nzi ko ashobora ahubwo kuzageza na hariya.

IGIHE: Isi yose yacitse umugongo yumvise ko Mandela yatabarutse, wakiriye ute urupfu rwe?

Hon. Rucibigango: Mu mabyiruka yanjye nimenyereje intambara zo kwibohoza nkiri muto. Ndibuka igihe Che Guevara yagwaga muri Bolivia urubyiruko rw’abaporogeresisite rwabuze morali, bariheba, ariko haje kuvuka abandi bantu Amerika y’Epfo irabohorwa. Hari Patrick Lumumba wapfuye, Rudahigwa, Prince Rwagasore, Rukeba n’abandi benshi bari intwari za Afurika batabarutse, ariko hagiye havuka abandi. Urugero natanga ni nka Perezida Paul Kagame; Maj. Fred Rwigema n’abandi. Ubu nizeye ko kubera amateka y’Isi, n’ihindagurika mu bitekerezo ndetse na politiki hazaba abandi bantu bameze nk’Umukambwe Madiba Mandela.

IGIHE: Ni iki ubona abatuye Isi bakwigira kuri Mandela?

Hon. Rucibigango: Mu buzima bwe Mandela yirinze amacakubiri ashingiye ku moko, igihugu, irangi ry’uruhu, kuko urugamba rwo kwibohora rudashoboka iyo ibitekerezo binyuranye ndetse n’abantu badahuje. Ubuyobozi bwiza ni ngombwa mu rugamba rwo kwibohora, kuko rudakenera abantu benshi ahubwo rukenera ingengabitekerezo nziza abantu bose bisangamo, n’umurongo umwe usobanutse rugenderaho.

IGIHE: Nyuma y’itabaruka rya Mandela, twavuga ko abaye amateka, ubona hari indi ntwari nibura Afurika izagira yo mu rwego nk’urwe?

Hon. Rucibigango: Kuvuga ko ubu hari iyahita iboneka ntibyoroshye, ariko uko iminsi ihita bishobora gushoboka.

IGIHE: Hari aho uhera uvuga ko bizashoboka?

Hon. Rucibigango: Amaherezo y’ubuzima ni urupfu kandi buri gihe kigira amateka yacyo. Hari abandi babayeho muri Afurika, twavuga nka Mutara III Rudahigwa, Igikomangoma Louis Rwagasore, Emery Patrice Lumumba, Kwame Nkrumah n’abandi. Nyuma y’aba, habayeho ba Ahmed Ben Berka, Hamilcar Cablar na bo barahita. Nyuma y’abo hakurikiyeho Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere, Samora Machel, Yoweli Kaguta Museveni. Twavuga kandi Ernesto Che Guevara, Fred Gisa Rwigema na Paul Kagame.

Nta shiti ko Afurika ndetse n’Isi yose bizakomeza kugira intwari mu mateka zo mu kigero cya Mandela, biturutse ku masomo bazaba bararazwe n’izindi ntwari, nk’uko na we ubutwari yaburazwe na Pixley Ka Isaka, Walter Sisulu na Olivier Tambo.

IGIHE: Ni iki cyakorwa kugira ngo atazibagirana ndetse n’amasomo ye akomeze kugira akamaro? By’umwihariko Abanyarwanda ni iki twamwigiraho?

Hon. Rucibigango: Dukwiye kuzirikana inyigisho z’uburere mboneragihugu n’iz’amateka zihabwa urubyiruko rushya. Ubu mu Rwanda, nshimishijwe n’uko inyigisho nk’izo z’uburere mboneragihugu n’amateka y’ubutwari zigishwa urubyiruko, bicishijwe ahanini mu itorero no muri gahunda ya Ndi Umunyarwanda. Nizeye ko bizigishwa no mu mashuri asanzwe ni ukuvuga ay’ibanze, ayisumbuye amashuri makuru na Kaminuza, bigashyirwa mu muco nk’uko indi ntwari ya Afurika Capitaine Thomas Sankara yari yarabyifuje. Abo ba nyakwigendera bose bazatubera urugero mu rugamba rushya rw’iterambere, kurwanya ubukene n’ubujiji. Imana ibahe iruhuko ridashira.

IGIHE: Ni ubuhe butumwa waha abakundaga Mandela bose?

Hon. Rucibigango: Tubuze intwari ikomeye ariko umurage asize uzatubere urumuri, twirinde ibidutanya byose bidafite aho bishingiye. Mandela yakoranye cyane n’amasendika y’abakozi, urugero ni COSATU (The Congress of South African Trade Unions) byatumye agira ingufu cyane. Ibyaranze Mandela bikwiye kumenyekana, ibikorwa byamuranze mu gihe cyo kwibohoza ndetse n’iterambere ryagezweho nyuma y’urwo rugamba bigombye kutubera urumuri. By’umwihariko mu Rwanda, twifuza ko hazavukamo intwari itazaba iy’u Rwanda gusa, ahubwo izaba iy’Isi yose.

IGIHE: Hari icyo wifuza kuvuga kuri Mandela tutakubajije?

Hon. Rucibigango: Sinashoboye guhura na we ngo anyigishe. Hari ikintu numva mbuze, sinamumenye by’akarusho. Imana imwakire mu bayo.

IGIHE: Murakoze cyane ku mwanya muduhaye wo kuganira namwe. Twifatanyije n’abaturage ba Afurika y’Epfo ndetse n’Isi yose. Nyuma y’ibyo kandi tubifurije Noheli nziza n’umwaka mushya muhire.

Hon. Rucibigango: Murakoze, namwe muzagire iminsi mikuru myiza

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