Biragoye ko igihano cyo kwicwa cyasubiraho mu Rwanda (Igice cya mbere)

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Kuya 18 Mata 2015 saa 05:17
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Nubwo abantu batandukanye bamaze iminsi bifuza ko igihano cyo kwicwa cyagarurwa mu mategeko y’u Rwanda, biragoye ko cyasubizwaho.

Nyuma y’aho igihano cyo kwicwa gikuriweho mu mategeko y’u Rwanda muri 2007, usanga binyuze mu bitangazamakuru bitandukanye (radiyo, televiziyo n’imbuga za internet), bamwe mu baturage basaba ko icyo gihano cyagarurwa, bavuga ko kuba cyarakuweho byatumye ibyaha bikomeye byiyongera, ariko iyo usuzumye uburyo cyavuyeho n’aho u Rwanda rugeze ubu mu butabera, usanga bigoye cyane ko icyifuzo cy’abo baturage cyakumvikana.

Abasaba igarurwa ry’iki gihano usanga babishingira akenshi ku makuru y’ibyaha by’ubugome bigenda bikorwa hiryo no hino mu gihugu birimo nko gusambanya abana, kwica uwo bashakanye, kwica abana n’ibindi.

Ariko mbere yo kwibaza niba bishoboka ko iki gihano gisumba ibindi ku isi cyagarurwa mu mategeko y’u Rwanda, umuntu akwiye kubanza kumenya uburyo mu rwego mpuzamahanga iki gihano gifatwa kugeza n’aho u Rwanda rwagikuyeho, ndetse akamenya akamaro n’ingaruka zacyo.

Igihano cyo kwicwa gifatwa gite mu rwego mpuzamahanga?

Mbere y’uko u Rwanda rukura igihano cyo kwicwa mu mategeko yarwo, mu rwego mpuzamahanga hari hasanzweho Itangazo Mpuzamahanga ryerekeye Uburenganzira bwa Muntu (Universal Declaration of Human Rights) ryo kuwa 10 Ukuboza 1948, UDHR mu mpine z’amagambo y’Icyongereza, u Rwanda rugengwa n’iryo tangazo ndetse nk’uko bigaragara mu Irangashingiro (preamble) ry’Itegeko-Nshinga rya Repubulika y’u Rwanda ryo kuwa 04 Kamena 2003 (nk’uko ryavuguruwe kandi ryujujwe kugeza ubu) u Rwanda rwiyemeje gukomeza kugengwa na UDHR kandi zimwe mu ngingo za UDHR zifite aho zihuriye n’ikurwaho ry’igihano cyo kwicwa. Ingero ni nk’izi zikurikira:

-  Ingingo ya 3 ya UDHR ivuga ko buri muntu afite uburengazira bwo kubaho, uburenganzira ku bwigenge no kugira umutekano (Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person)

-  Ingingo ya 5 ya UDHR yo ivuga ko ko nta muntu ugomba gukorerwa iyicarubozo cyangwa ngo afatwe mu buryo bwa kinyamaswa cyangwa butesha agaciro umuntu cyangwa ngo ahabwe ibihano nk’ibyo (No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment)

Hari abahera kuri izi ngingo rero bakavuga ko n’igihano cyo kwicwa cyaba gitesha umuntu agaciro cyangwa se ari icya kinyamaswa kuri bo bikaba bihagije ngo bitume bagikuraho.

Andi Masezerano Mpuzamahanga yari ari ho mbere y’uko u Rwanda rukuraho igihano cyo kwicwa ni ayerekeye Uburenganzira mu by’Imbonezamubano na Politiki yo ku wa 19 Ukuboza 1966 (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights), ICCPR mu mpine z’amagambo y’Icyongereza.

U Rwanda rwayashyizeho umukono (through accession) kuwa 16 April 1975. Muri ICCPR usangamo ingingo zitandukanye zifite aho zihuriye n’gihano cyo kwicwa. Urugero rw’izo ngingo ni nk’izi zikurikira:

-  Ingingo ya 6 ya ICCPR ivuga ko buri muntu afite uburenganzira bwo kubaho kandi ko ntawushobora kumwambura ubuzima, ko no mu gihe kubumwambura bibayeho nk’igihano bigomba gukurikiza amategeko kandi bikemezwa n’urubanza rwaciwe burundu n’Urukiko rubifitiye ububasha kandi bene icyo gihano kigatangwa gusa ku byaha bikomeye cyane (only for the most serious crimes).

Ikindi cy’ingenzi iyi ngingo igarukaho ni uko iki gihano kidashobora guhabwa abari munsi y’imyaka 18 n’abagore batwite. Iyi ngingo ariko ikavuga ko itazaba urwitwazo cyangwa urukerereza ku bihugu bishaka gukuraho igihano cyo kwicwa.

-  Ingingo ya 7 ya ICCPR yo ikavuga ko nta muntu ugomba gukorerwa iyicarubozo cyangwa ngo afatwe mu buryo bwa kinyamaswa cyangwa butesha agaciro cyangwa ngo ahabwe ibihano nk’ibyo “No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment”.

Hari aho usanga uburyo igihano cyo kwicwa gishyirwa mu bikorwa bamwe babwita ubwa kinyamaswa. Izi ngingo za ICCPR rero zahuzwa n’iza UDHR twavuze haruguru ugasanga bituma bamwe bakomeza kubona ko igihano cyo kwicwa gikwiriye kuvaho mu bihugu byose.

Nyuma ya ICCPR, kuwa 10/12/1984 LONI yashyizeho amasezerano mpuzamahanga agamije kurwanya iyicarubozo (Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment), CAT mu mpine, maze u Rwanda ruyashyiraho umukono kuwa 15 December 2008 (through accession).

Nyuma y’ayo mazezerano twavuze haruguru,byaje kugaragara ko ari ngombwa gushyiraho amasezerano mpuzamahanga yihariye yo gukuraho igihano cyo kwicwa, maze kuwa 15/12/1989 LONI ishyiraho Amasezerano y’Inyongera ya Kabiri Adategestwe kuri ICCPR agamije gukuraho igihano cyo kwicwa (Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aiming at the abolition of the death penalty) kugira ngo ashyirweho imikono ku bushake n’ibihugu byari byarashyize umukono kuri ICCPR maze u Rwanda (through accession) rwemeza ayo masezerano y’inyongera kuwa 15 Dec 2008, ni ukuvuga ku munsi umwe n’uwo rwemerejeho CAT twavuze hejuru yerekeye kurwanya iyicarubozo.

Ubutaha tuzaba twibaza kandi dusubiza ibibazo bikurikira:

Ese igihano cyo kwicwa mu Rwanda cyakuweho n’irihe tegeko? Ese cyasimbuwe n’ikihe gihano?

Ni izihe mpamvu zaba zarateye u Rwanda gukuraho igihano cyo kwicwa?

Ese haba hariho ibyiza (advantages) by’igihano cyo kwicwa?

Ese haba hariho ibibi by’igihano cyo kwicwa?

Ese birashoboka kugarura igihano cyo kwicwa mu mategeko y’u rwanda?

Iki ni igitekerezo bwite n’ubusesenguzi bwa Me Jean Népomuscène Mugengangabo


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