Hari ibigo by’imari bifatirana ubumenyi buke bw’abakiriya babyo bikabarenganya

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Kuya 17 Nzeri 2014 saa 09:25
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Mu gihe mu Rwanda hari iterambere ryihuta mu gutanga serivisi z’imari, abaguzi ba bene izo serivisi n’inzego zishinzwe kubarengera baracyakeneye kurushaho gusobanukirwa n’amategeko arengera abaguzi muri rusange n’arengera abaguzi b’izo serivisi by’umwihariko, kuko haba iyo habayeho akarengane gatewe no kutabimenya.
Ibi birigaragara cyane cyane iyo usomye amasezerano akorwa hagati y’ibigo by’imari bitandukanye n’abakiriya babyo, cyangwa ugakurikirana imanza ziba hagati yabo, aho usanga mu masezerano (...)

Mu gihe mu Rwanda hari iterambere ryihuta mu gutanga serivisi z’imari, abaguzi ba bene izo serivisi n’inzego zishinzwe kubarengera baracyakeneye kurushaho gusobanukirwa n’amategeko arengera abaguzi muri rusange n’arengera abaguzi b’izo serivisi by’umwihariko, kuko haba iyo habayeho akarengane gatewe no kutabimenya.

Ibi birigaragara cyane cyane iyo usomye amasezerano akorwa hagati y’ibigo by’imari bitandukanye n’abakiriya babyo, cyangwa ugakurikirana imanza ziba hagati yabo, aho usanga mu masezerano hagaragaramo ingingo zibangamiye umuguzi (umukiriya) ku buryo bugaragara.

Nyamara, iyo havutse ikibazo bakitabaza inkiko, usanga abacamanza bamwe batababashije kwita ku burenganzira bw’umuguzi bwabangamiwe kuva bagikora amasezerano y’imari (financial agreement), akenshi bitewe no kudasobanukirwa amategeko yihariye arengera abaguzi muri rusange n’abaguzi ba serivisi z’imari (consumers of financial products&services) by’umwihariko.

Ariko se ubundi, umuguzi ni nde? By’umwihariko umuguzi wa serivisi z’ibigo by’imari we se ni nde? Kuki umuguzi afite amategeko yihariye amurengera? Ese arengerwa ugereranyije na nde? Ni ibiki by’ingenzi umuguzi wa serivisi z’imari arengerwaho by’umwihariko? Ni izihe ngero z’akarengane umuguzi wa serivisi z’imari akunze guhura na zo mu Rwanda? Ni izihe ngaruka kurengera cyangwa kutarengera umuguzi wa serivisi z’imari bigira ku bukungu bw’igihugu, bw’akarere cyangwa bw’Isi? Ese mu Rwanda inkiko zibyitwaramo gute iyo ziregewe n’umuguzi uvuga ko yarenganijwe n’ikigo cy’imari runaka?

1. Umuguzi ni nde?

Igisobanuro cy’umuguzi mu rwego rw’amategeko gitangwa n’itegeko nº36/2012 ryo kuwa 21 Nzeri 2012 rigenga ihiganwa mu bucuruzi no kurengera abaguzi aho mu ngingo yaryo ya 2, agaka ka 11 risobanura umuguzi nk“umuntu ugura, uhabwa ikintu cyangwa serivisi ukoresha ikintu we ubwe, cyangwa ku nyungu z’umuryango ku mpamvu zitari iz’ubucuruzi”.

Nubwo itegeko ryise umuguzi ugura uhabwa ikintu cyangwa serivisi akoresha we ubwe cyangwa ku nyungu z’umuryango ntibikwiye kumvikana ko igisobanuro kigarukiye aho gusa kuko kinakubiyemo ugura ikintu cyangwa serivisi ikoreshwa n’abandi batari we cyangwa umuryango gusa, apfa kuba gusa aguze icyo kintu cyangwa servisi atagamije impamvu z’ubucuruzi cyangwa se mu yandi magambo apfa kuba akiguze nk’umuguzi wanyuma.

Ibi kandi binasobanuye ko iyo umuntu usanzwe ari umucuruzi aguze ikintu cyangwa serivisi kiri cyangwa kitari mu byo asanzwe acuruza kandi akaba agamije kugikoresha mu buryo twasobanuye haruguru na we aba ari umuguzi, bityo akaba arengerwa n’itegeko

2. Umuguzi wa Serivsi z’imari (consumer of financial products&services) we ni nde?

Birumvikana ko itegeko twavuze haruguru ritari kugenda risobanura buri cyiciro cy’abaguzi ari nayo mpamvu utarisangamo igisobauro cyihariye cy’umuguzi wa serivisi z’imari ariko uhereye ku gisobanuro cy’umuguzi iryo tegeko ritanga uhita wumva ko umuguzi wa serivisi z’imari ari umuntu ugura uhabwa ikintu cyangwa serivisi (product or service) y’imari ngo ag(z)ikoreshe we ubwe cyangwa g(z)ikoreshwe n’undi muntu, atagamije gucuruza icyo kintu/serivisi ku bandi.

Ibyo bintu cyangwa serivisi z’imari (financial products or services) zaba nk’izi zikurikira: kugira konti mu kigo cy’imari, ikarita bakoresha bihereza serivisi zitandukanye (ATM Card), guhabwa/gukoresha impapuro zo kwakiriraho amafaranga (receipt) cyangwa izifite agaciro k’amafaranga (cheques, Payment Order, etc), kubitsa cyangwa kubikuza amafaranga, inguzanyo iyo ari yo yose, ingwate, gushyingura amafaranga, n’ibindi bitandukanye.

Umuntu rero ugura kimwe cyangwa uhabwa serivisi imwe cyangwa byinshi/nyinshi muri ibyo tumaze kuvuga n’ibindi bisa nkabyo mu buryo twasobanuye haruguru aba ari umuguzi wa serivisi z’imari.

3. Kuki umuguzi afite amategeko yihariye amurengera? Ese arengerwa ugereranyije na nde?

Ukurikije umwanya umuguzi aba ahagazemo ugereranyije n’ugurisha (umucuruzi) usanga impamvu nyamukuru ituma umuguzi ashyirirwaho amategeko amurengera ari uko aba atari umunyamwuga w’ibyo agura bityo akaba yarenganira mu kutamenya cyangwa kudasobanukirwa n’ibigize icyo agura cyangwa se uko gikoreshwa bityo akarengerwa kugira ngo uko kudasobanukirwa kutamuteza guhungabanyirizwa uburengazira afite ku cyo yaguze cyangwa mu buryo icyo kintu gikoreshwa.

Nyamara umugurishaho ikintu/serivisi runaka twakwita umucuruzi we aba ari umunyamwuga kuko ari ko kazi ke ka buri munsi. Bityo rero umuguzi arengerwa ugereranyije n’umucuruzaho ibintu cyangwa serivisi (umucuruzi).

Ni muri urwo rwego ingingo ya 279 y’ Igitabo cya Gatatu cy’ Urwunge rw’amategeko y’imbonezamubano (CCLIII) : Ibyerekeye imirimo nshinganwa cyangwa amasezerano igira iti: “Umugurisha agomba gusobanurira mu buryo bwumvikana inshingano ze. Amasezerano yose atumvikana cyangwa adasobanutse, asobanurwa mu buryo bubangamiye umugurisha ».

Naho ingingo ya 33 y’ itegeko Nº36/2012 ryo kuwa 21/09/2012 rigenga ihiganwa mu bucuruzi no kurengera abaguzi igira iti: “Bitarenze igihe cyo gukora amasezerano y’igurisha, ugurisha wabigize umwuga agomba guha umuguzi amakuru y’ukuri kandi akenewe yerekeye imiterere y’igicuruzwa cyangwa ya serivisi ndetse n’ibisabwa mu masezerano hitawe ku buryo umuguzi yagaragaje ko akeneye amakuru kimwe n’icyo yavuze ko azakoresha igicuruzwa cyangwa cyateganywa mu buryo bwumvikana”.

Indi mpamvu umuguzi arengerwa ni ukugira ngo ikintu cyangwa serivisi agura ibe idafite inenge cyane cyane izihishe (vices cachés/hidden defects) zaba izabaye mu gihe bagikoraga (vices de construction) cyangwa se izabayeho nyuma yo kuva mu ruganda (deterioration) nk’uko biteganywa n’ingingo ya 42 y’itegeko rirengera umuguzi twavuze haruguru.

Indi mpamvu y’ingenzi ituma umuguzi arengerwa ni ukugira ngo hatazagira umwambura icyo yaguze na we akita icye (garantie contre éviction/warranty against eviction).

Izindi mpamvu twavuga ni nko kugira ngo umuguzi adahendwa, cyane cyane ku bicuruzwa bigirwa n’umuntu umwe (monopolistic market) cyangwa bake, n’ibindi. Uretse ibyo se ni ibiki abaguzi ba serivisi z’imari brengerwaho byihariye kuri bo?

4. Ni ibiki by’ingenzi Umuguzi wa serivisi z’imari arengerwaho by’umwihariko?

Kimwe n’abaguzi b’ibindi bintu cyangwa serivisi, uburenganzira bw’ingenzi bw’umuguzi wa serivisi z’imari ni uguhabwa amakuru no gusobanurirwa bihagije ku bigize icyo agura cyangwa serivisi ahabwa ku buryo abasha kumva ibikigize cyangwa imiterere yacyo (features), kumenya uko gikora (functionning), inyungu azakura mu kugikoresha (benefits) cyangwa se ingaruka (effects) bizamugiraho kubera ko yemeye guhabwa icyo kintu cyangwa serivisi kandi ayo makuru akayahabwa mbere y’uko amaserano yo kugura icyo kintu/serivisi ashyirwaho imikono.

Dufashe urugero rw’umuntu ufata inguzanyo, ni ayahe amakuru agomba guhabwa mbere y’uko abashyira imikono ku masezerano yayo n’ay’ingwate (igihe bayishyizemo)?

Inyandiko y’Umuryango OCDE ugizwe n’ibihugu 34 byiganjemo iby’u Burayi, Amerika, na Aziya yasohowe muri Kamena 2009 ikayita “Culture financière et protection des consommateurs : les oubliés de la crise. RECOMMANDATION SUR LES BONNES PRATIQUES DE SENSIBILISATION ET D’ÉDUCATION AUX QUESTIONS FINANCIÈRES DANS LE DOMAINE DU CRÉDIT”, ku rupapuro rwa 21, yerekanye iby’ingenzi uhabwa inguzanyo akwiye kubanza gusobanurirwa no kumenya ingaruka zabyo mbere yo gusinya amasezerano y’inguzanyo/ingwate bigera kuri 14:

1. Ingano y’umwenda-remezo (le montant du prêt) ;
2. Igihe inguzanyo izishyurwamo n’igihe amasezerano azamara (niba ibyo bihe bitandukanye) (le délai d’amortissement et l’échéance ou la durée du contrat (si elle est différente) ;
3. Ijanisha ry’inyungu nuburyo ryahindagurikamo ubwo ari bwo bwos (le taux d’intérêt et tout éventuel mécanisme de révision du taux) ;
4. Andi mafaranga yakoreshwa mu gihe cyo gutegura inguzanyo n’ibihembo byabaho bijyanye n’inguzanyo (les frais et honoraires éventuels (y compris les frais de courtage) associés au prêt) ;
5. Inshuro zo kwishyuriraho (le nombre d’échéances) ;
6. Umubare w’amafaranga azajya yishyurwa n’amatariki azajya yishyurirwaho (le montant des sommes à payer et les dates de paiement correspondantes) ;
7. Umubare w’amafaranga yose hamwe azishyurwa (le montant total à rembourser);
8. Ikiguzi cyose cy’inguzanyo (ni ukuvuga g ukuyemo a) (le coût total du crédit (à savoir g moins;
9. Ijanisha nyakuri ku mwaka habariwemo n’andi mafaranga asabirwa ubwishyu n’uguriza ku bijyanye n’inguzanyo yishingiwe n’ingwate itimukanwa (le véritable taux d’intérêt annuel, y compris les frais supplémentaires facturés par le prêteur au titre du crédit hypothécaire);
10. Aho inyungu izatangirira kwisyuzwa (le point de départ de la facturation de l’intérêt);
11. Niba hatanzwe igihe cyo kwitegura kwishyura umwenda-remezo, ubwishyu bukabanza gukorwa ku nyungu n’andi mafaranga akoreshwa mu gutegura inguzanyo (l’existence d’un différé d’amortissement, les paiements servant d’abord à couvrir les intérêts et les autres frais) ;
12. Ibisobanuro n’ikiguzi bya serivisi zidategetswe umuguzi yemeye abisabwe n’umuguriza (urugero nko gufata ubwishingizi bw’ubuzima)(la description et le coût des services optionnels que le consommateur a acceptés de la part du prêteur (par exemple, une assurance vie ou invalidité) ;
13. Uburyo bwo kugena ibihano byabaho, mu gihe habayeho kwishyuzwa mbere y’igihe cyangwa gukerererwa kwishyura/kutishyura (les modalités de calcul de la pénalité éventuelle, en cas de remboursement anticipé ou de défaut de paiement) ;
14. Ingaruka ukwiyongera kw’inyungu kwa 1% kugira ku mubare w’amafaranga ku bihe byo kwiyuriraho mu mwaka wa mbere w’amasezerano (ku nguzanyo zifite ingwate itimukanwa n’ijanisha rihindagurika) l’effet sur le montant des échéances d’une augmentation de 1% des intérêts au cours de la première année du contrat (en cas de prêt hypothécaire à taux variable).

Ariko iyo usuzumye mu Rwanda, usanga ibigo bike cyangwa nta bigo na bimwe by’imari bifata umukiriya wabyo ngo bibanze bimusobanurire ibi twavuze haruguru abyumve neza, amenye ingaruka ya buri kimwe kimwe hanyuma abone gushyira umukono ku masezerano. Ugasanga biteje ingaruka zimwe zirimo akarengane ku muguzi cyangwa rimwe na rimwe guhomba kw’ibigo by’imari ku myenda imwe n’imwe biba byatanze.

5. Ni izihe ngero z’akarengane umuguzi wa serivisi z’imari ashobora guhura nako?

Kuba biteganijwe ko umuguzi abanza guhabwa amakuru mbere yo gukora amasezerano yerekeye ikintu/serivisi agura, ntabwo ari ko bikurikizwa n’abacuruzi benshi, bikaba akarusho ariko ku bijyanye na serivisi z’imari.

Urugero twavuga nk’iyo umuntu yegereye banki runaka ashaka kugiramo konti, ni ibigo bicye cyangwa se nta na kimwe gifata umuguzi ngo kibanze kimwigishe imikoreshereze ya konti, niba hari amafaranga azajya acibwa buri gihe runaka cyangwa buri uko agize icyo akora kuri iyo konti. Ibyo bigatera ikibazo ku baguzi cyane cyane nk’iyo babakuyeho amafaranga runaka bajya kubaza ikigo babitsamo bakabwira wenda ngo ni ayo bakuraho buri kwezi (monthly charges), ayo kugura ATM card, ayo kubikuza, ayo gukoresha serivisi mobile/electronic banking, n’ibindi bitandukanye nyamara igihe wafunguzayo konti batarigeze babigusobanurira.

Ibi kandi hari igihe babisobanurira umukiriya, hashira igihe runaka bakazahindura umubare w’ayo bakata batabanje kubimenyesha umuguzi (umukiriya) ngo abyemere cyangwa se ahitemo gusesa amasezerano bafitanye, na byo bikaba ari akarengane.

Akandi karengane ari nako gakomeye ni agakunze kugaragarira mu ngingo ziba zigize amaserano y’inguzanyo cyangwa ay’ingwate ku nguzanyo ibigo by’imari biha abakiriya babyo aho usanga muri bene ayo masezerano harimo ingingo zibangamiye umuguzi (abusive clauses) cyangwa se zigamije kuzamutsindisha (unfair terms/conditions) haramutse habaye urubanza kabone n’ubwo yaba arengana.

Reka dufate ingero z’amasezrano y’inguzanyo/ingwate ibigo by’imari bitandukanye tuza kwita Bank 1, Bank 2, Bank 3,…. (kugira ngo tutabivuga mu mazina) byagiranye n’abakiriya babyo turebemo ingingo zibangamiye umuguzi ziyakubiyemo.

Bank 1

Iyi banki yagiranye amasezerano n’umukiriya wayo arimo ingingo zikurikira:
-“According to regulations in force, this credit will be subject to the following conditions until further notice, having agreed that we have the right, if needed, to modify these conditions without changing this contract”.

Muri make iyi ngingo iha Bank 1 ububasha bwo guhindura ingingo zigenga inguzanyo (zikubiye mu masezerano) ku bwende bwayo bitabaye ngombwa ko ibanza kubyumvikanaho n’umuguzi. Ni ukuvuga ko Bank 1 ishobora guhindura ijanisha (percentage) ry’inyungu, irya commission, iry’ibihano n’ibindi itabanje kubyumvikanaho n’umuguzi (umukiriya).

Indi ngingo muri ayo masezerano yagiraga iti: …in addition, the customer authorizes the bank to publish through the media his names & photos in case of default.

Iyi ngingo iha ububasha Bank 1 bwo gutangaza umuguzi (umukiriya) mu binyamakuru igihe yananiwe kubahiriza amasezerano (y’inguzanyo). Mu by’ukuri iyi ngingo irenganya umuguzi kuko uretse no kuba nta muntu wakwishimira gutangazwa mu binyamakuru kuko atabashije kwishyura, n’iyo usomye itegeko rigenga amasezerano mu Rwanda usanga nta na hamwe rivuga ko uwananiwe kubahiriza/uwishe amasezerano atangazwa mu binyamakuru.

Bank 2

Iyi banki twise Bank 2 yo yagiranye amasezerano y’ingwate n’umukiriya wabo aho umukiriya yatanze umugore we nk’umwishingizi ndetse bakagwatiriza n’inzu batuyemo maze mu masezerano y’ubwishingire (acte de cautionnement) bashyiramo ingingo zitandukanye ariko igaragaramo akarengane cyane ikaba ari iya 1.

Yagiraga iti: “la caution declare se constituer caution solidaire et indivisible avec renonciation à tout benefice de discussion et de division, comme précise à l’article 6 ci-après, et garantir le remboursement integral de tous les engagements que… (izina ry’uhawe inguzanyo tutashatse kuvuga) ci-après dénommé “débiteur principal” a ou pourrait avoir actuellement ou à l’avenir envers la Banque pour quelque cause que ce soit, de quelque chef et à quelque titre que ce puisse être”

Muri make iyi ngingo ivuze ko umwishingizi yishingiye uhawe umwenda kuri iyo nguzanyo ahawe, ku yindi myenda yaba afitiye Bank 2 uyu munsi cyangwa yazayigiramo ku mpamvu izo ari zo zose. Binavuze ko n’ubwo umwenda ugurijwe ahawe wakishyurwa ukarangira, aramutse aje agasaba undi bazawumuha kandi ya masezerano y’ubwishingire akomeze agire agaciro batiriwe bahamagara umwishingizi ngo yongere yemere kuwishingira na wo ndetse hakorwe n’andi masezerano y’ubwishingire na yo ayemere anayashyireho umukono.

Iyi ngingo rero irenganya (unfair/abusive term) umuguzi kuko ivuga ko Umwishingizi yishingiye imyenda azi n’iyo atazi. Ibi kandi ni ko byagenze kuko uwishingiwe yamaze kwishyura umwenda wa mbere asubirayo afata undi atongeye guhamagara umwishingizi ngo yongere yemere kumwishingira, maze birangira atabashije kwishyura umwenda wa kabiri, Bank 2 ishatse gufatira ingwate havuka ibibazo byakemuwe n’inkiko ku buryo tuza kubabwira nitugera mu gice cyerekeye uko inkiko zibyitwaramo.

Bene iyi ngingo kandi uyisanga mu masezerano y’ubwinshingire ibigo by’imari byose cyangwa hafi ya byose bisinyisha abakiriya bayo.

Bank 3

Ikurikira ni ingingo ya 5 y’amasezerano y’ubwishingire Bank 3 yagiranye n’umukiriya wayo n’umwishingizi we:

“La banque est dispense de tenir la caution au courant des engagements du débiteur principal, des délais qui pourraient être acordés à ce dernier, des modifications que la banque et/ou le débiteur principal pourraient apporter aux montants et/ou aux modalités du (des) crédits ouverts ou à ouvrir au débiteur principal ou à son profit et du sort des effets qui lui sont ou lui seraient escomptés…..”

Muri make iyi ngingo isobanuye ko Bank 3 ikuweho ishingano yo kumenyesha umwishingizi amakuru arebana n’ishingano z’uhawe umwenda, igihe zamara, impinduka Bank 3 yonyine cyangwa ifatanyije n’uhawe umwenda bakora ku mubare w’umwenda bahaye cyangwa bazaha uhawe umwenda,….. Iyi ngingo y’amasezerano rero ikaba inyuranye n’ingingo ya 42 y’itegeko rirengera umuguzi.

Mu by’ukuri ikaba ari imwe muri za zindi twise abusive/unfair terms or conditions”, igitangaje ukaba usanga ingingo zimeze nkayo mu masezerano ibigo by’imari byose cyangwa hafi ya byose bigirana n’abakiriya babyo.

6. Ese mu Rwanda inkiko zibyitwaramo gute iyo ziregewe n’umuguzi uvuga ko yarenganijwe n’ikigo cy’imari runaka?

Mu Rwanda biragoye kubona imanza zaciwe kuri iyi ngingo yo kurengera umuguzi bitari uko abaguzi batarengana, ahubwo bitewe n’uko abaguzi benshi bataramenya/batarasobanukirwa n’uburenganzira bagenerwa n’amategeko n’ubwo n’amategeko abarengera n’ayo atarabaho ku buryo buhagije.

Urubanza twabashije kumenya ni urwaye hagati ya Bank 2 n’umukiriya wayo n’umwishingizi we biturutse kuri ya ngingo ibangamye yari ikubiye mu mamasezerano twavuze, Bank 2 yagiranye n’abakiriya bayo bigatuma uwahawe umwenda asubirayo agafata undi nyuma yo kwishyura uwa mbere nyamara atabanje kumenyesha umwishingizi we kubera ko ya ngingo yavugaga ko hishingiwe umwenda utanzwe ako kanya n’indi yazatangwa.

Uhawe umwenda yananiwe kwishyura wa mwenda wa kabiri maze Bank 2 imuregana hamwe n’umwishingizi igamije kubishyuza uwo mwenda no gufatira inzu bari baratanzeho ingwate. Umwishingizi yisobanuraga avuga ko adashobora kuryozwa uwo mwenda wa kabiri kuko uwahawe umwenda na Bank 2 batigeze bawumumenyesha ngo yemere kuwishingira naho Bank 2 yo ikavuga ko mu masezerano basinye batanga umwenda wa mbere harimo ingingo ivuga ko umwishingizi yishingiye uwo mwenda n’indi uhawe inguzanyo afitiye cyangwa yazagirira Bank 2 (…et garantir le remboursement integral de tous les engagements que… (izina ry’uhawe inguzanyo tutashatse kuvuga) ci-après dénommé “débiteur principal” a ou pourrait avoir actuellement ou à l’avenir envers la Banque pour quelque cause que ce soit, de quelque chef et à quelque titre que ce puisse être).

Igitangaje ni uko mu guca urwo rubanza Urukiko Rukuru rw’Ubucuruzi rwavuze ko uwahawe umwenda (débiteur principal) n’umwishingizi (la Caution) batsinzwe, rukabategeka gufatanya kwishyura Bank 2 ngo kuko ntawahatiye umwishingizie gushyira umukono kuri ariya masezerano nyamara rukirengagiza uburenganzira bw’umuguzi bwo guhabwa amakuru n’ibisobanuro bihagije nk’uko twabisobanuye. Umuntu akibazo ukuntu urukiko rwo ku rwego nka ruriya kandi runihariye ku bibazo by’ubucuruzi rutabashije kumva ikibazo cy’umuguzi wa bene kariya kageni.

Igishimishije ariko na none ni uko Urukiko rw’Ikirenga mu gukiza ubujurire bwatanzwe n’umwishingizi kuri ruriya rubanza, rwabashije kuvumbura akarengane umwishingizi (umuguzi) yagiriwe na Bank 2 ifatanyije n’uwahawe umwenda, kubera ko umwishingizi atahawe amakuru n’ibisobanuro bigenerwa umuguzi mbere yo gushyira umukono ku masezerano cyane cyane ko uretse no kuba amasezerano y’ubwishingire yari akubiyemo ingingo imurenganya, batigeze bamumenyesha na gato ko umwenda wa kabiri wari ugiye guhabwa/wahawe uwo yishingiye, maze rwanzura ko uwahawe umwenda azishyura umwenda wenyine naho ko umwishingizi atigeze atanga ubwishingizi kuri uwo mwenda wa kabiri.

Ibi rero bituma twibaza akamaro ko kurengera umuguzi, by’umwihariko umuguzi wa serivisi z’imari.

7. Ni izihe ngaruka kurengera cyangwa kutarengera umuguzi wa serivisi z’imari bigira ku bukungu bw’igihugu, ubw’akarere cyangwa ubw’isi?

Muri ya nyandiko Culture financière et protection des consommateurs : les oubliés de la crise, ku mpapuro zayo za 3, 8 yerekana ko imwe mu mizi ikomeye yateye ibibazo by’ubukungu ku Isi byariho igihe yandikwaga (Kamena 2009) ari ukutagira uburyo buhamye bwo kurengera abaguzi ba serivisi z’imari kwatumye abaguzi badasobanukiwe/badafite amakuru ahagije bagwa mu mutego wo gusaba/kwemera inguzanyo zitabakwiriye cyangwa zitari ku rwego rwabo(convenant manifestement pas à sa situation).

Ibi kandi biranumvikana kuko iyo umuntu afashe inguzanyo itagendanye n’uko ameze bishobora gutuma ananirwa kwishyura, bityo niba abafashe bene izo nguzanyo babaye benshi, ibigo by’imari byabagurije bigahomba, ugasanga ikibazo cy’ubukungu (financial crisis) gitangiye gutyo kandi gikwiriye henshi.

Nta gushidikanya ko no mu Rwanda hadashyizweho ingamba zihariye zo kurengera abaguzi ba serivisi z’imari byazagera aho biteza ibihombo bini abaguzi ndetse n’ibigo by’imari, bikaba byanateza ibibazo by’ubukungu (financial crisis).

Ikindi kibazo kutarengera abaguzi ba serivisi z’imari byateza ni igabanuka ry’abakoresha bene izo serivisi cyane abasaba inguzanyo kuko baba batinya ko nibarengana batazabona ubarenganura kandi igabanuka ry’abakoresha serivisi z’imari zituma ubukungu butihuta cyangwa bugabanya umuvuduko.

Ikindi na none ni abahabwa serivisi z’imari batazisobanuriwe neza bigatuma bagwa mu gihombo ntibabashe kwishyura, uretse no kuba ibigo byabagurije bihomba ayo byabahaye, ubutaha bifata ingamba zo kutaguriza abantu cyangwa kugorana mu gutanga inguzanyo, bityo na none umuvuduko w’ubukungu ukagabanuka.

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